Type is speech written down.
The use of Upper and Lower case can effect how the words are perceived:
Serif and Sans Serif font can also change the style:
Kerning - Manipulating the spacing between letters, to slow or speed up the reading of the word.
It is mainly used when designing logos, to gain the perfect balance between the letters.
Negative kerning should never be used.
Slight adjustments are best for balancing words better.
It is not always mathematical spacing, it can be effected by the typeface and the weight.
It can be easier to just go by the visual aspect and then just working from where the largest white space sits.
In this example below, the space between the 'I' and 'R' is two small compared with the space between the others so I have adjusted this slightly to make it more balanced:
Hierarchy - Order of Importance
The order of what your eye is drawn to can be affected by things such as colour, scale, weight, position, upper/lower case type.
There is a difference between what you first look at and what your first read.
We are taught to learn to read from left to right, but hierarchy can change the way we look at things, as our attention may be first brought to the bottom of a page and then up to the top.
Here is an example:
Image and Type are both ways of communication. They are both speech.
Another example below of a reading one, two, three, four, but with a different hierarchy:
This next example is trying to again read 1,2,3, 4 in the same order but the 4 is larger in scale:
This works because when type is sideways, we are award of it but we do not tend to read it until last.
Sideways type when it is a word on its own, is easier to read from bottom to top rather than from top to bottom.
Where is the break?
''A friend in need is a pest''
''A friend in need
is a pest''